Richard Edward Moon, MD
Professor of Anesthesiology
Professor of Medicine
Medical Director, Hyperbaric Center
Interim Chief of General, Vascular and Transplant
Research interests include the study of cardiorespiratory function in humans exposed to environmental conditions ranging from 200 feet of seawater depth to high altitude, gas exchange during diving, the pathophysiology of high altitude pulmonary edema and the effect of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia on pulmonary function. Ongoing human studies include the use of fractals to study breathing patterns during environmental and perioperative stress, and mechanisms of immersion pulmonary edema
Claude A. Piantadosi, MD
Professor of Medicine and Pathology
Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology
Dr. Piantadosi has served as the Director of the Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology at Duke University Medical Center since 1990. He received his M.D. degree at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and training in Internal Medicine at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and then entered the U.S. Navy where he was trained as a Diving and Submarine Medical Officer, earning his Dolphins in 1978. He served as Medical Officer for Submarine Squadron 2 in New London, Connecticut and then received training in deep saturation diving at the U.S. Navy Experimental Diving Unit in Panama City, Florida where he worked on the problems of respiratory heat loss in deep saturation diving and on CO2 removal in closed circuit-oxygen re-breathers for use in special operations. He came to Duke in 1980 as a Fellow in Pulmonary Medicine and received research training in tissue oxygenation under Dr. Herbert A. Saltzman and mitochondrial biology under Dr. Frans F. Jobsis in the Department of Physiology, joining the Duke faculty in 1982. Dr. Piantadosi is board-certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine, Critical Care Medicine, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine and directs the Oxygen Transport Laboratory, which is committed to the study of the basic biology of oxygen (O2). This field encompasses the delivery and utilization of O2 by tissues and cellular oxidative metabolism, as well as molecular signal transduction by O2 and the other biological gases such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species. Alterations in tissue oxygenation and O2 utilization occur in myriad disease processes that produce hypoxia, ischemia, or defects in cellular O2 distribution or in cell respiration. These changes involve ROS and RNS generation, and play major roles in the pathogenesis and recovery of tissue injury during exposure to high altitude and other hypoxic conditions, ischemia-reperfusion syndromes involving the heart, lungs, and brain including arterial gas embolism and DCS, during CNS and pulmonary oxygen toxicity, and in serious infections especially sepsis. Dr. Piantadosi has authored or co-authored over 300 full-length articles, reviews, and book chapters. His research is funded by the NIH and the Office of Naval Research and he is a member of the American Thoracic Society, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, American Physiological Society, Society for Neuroscience, American Heart Association, American Society for Clinical Investigation, and Association of American Physicians.
John Jacob Freiberger, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology
Jake Freiberger loves everything about the water. He has been a recreational diver since 1980 and he formerly served as the CME director for the Divers Alert Network. He is a native of Dallas, Texas and a graduate of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, internship, residency, and Critical Care Fellowship at the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. He earned his Masters in Public Health at the University of North Carolina and did a fellowship in Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine at Duke. He is a diplomat of the National Board of Public Health, the American Board of Anesthesiology The American Board of Anesthesiology’s Special Qualifications in Critical Medicine and the American Board of Preventive Medicine’s program in Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine. He is now the first executive director of Duke Dive Medicine, the new extreme environment and diving injury consultation service hosted at the Duke Chamber. Dr Freiberger works on the translation of basic science research on reactive oxygen species signaling into clinical practice involving hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). He has performed animal experiments in the use of HBO for ischemic preconditioning and he is currently funded to conduct a randomized controlled trial of the use of HBO for the treatment of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw. The mechanisms of action for HBO in the treatment of: diabetic wounds, bony and soft tissue radionecrosis and decompression sickness are also areas of his inquiry. Dr Freiberger also does basic epidemiological research into accidents and injuries associated with diving, high altitude exposure and other adverse conditions associated with extreme environments. Dr. Freiberger directs the fellowship program at the Duke Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology. His wife, Sharon Palsha, and three daughters are certified divers and they love diving together, particularly in the Abacos.Bryant Walter Stolp, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology Medical Instructor in the Department of Cell Biology Section Chief of ENT Anesthesia
Guy De Lisle Dear, MB FRCA Associate Professor of Anesthesiology Associate Professor in Pediatrics
Dr. Dear specializes in fitness to dive issues relating to divers with insulin requiring diabetes and other illnesses. In 2005 he completed a major international workshop sponsored by the UHMS and DAN on diabetes and diving.
Eric Hexdall, RN, CHRN
Eric Hexdall, RN, CHRN, is a retired Navy diving and Explosive Ordnance Disposal officer who came to Duke Dive Medicine from the Duke Hospital surgical/trauma ICU. Prior to completing his nursing education in 2002, he was an instructor at the College of Oceaneering in Los Angeles, where he taught a variety of subjects including hyperbaric chamber operation, diving medicine, and emergency medical technology. Eric’s field work in commercial diving has included offshore oil pipeline inspection, harbor maintenance, and underwater inspection and nondestructive testing of commercial shipping. He holds U.S. Navy certifications as a surface-supplied and rebreather diving supervisor and hyperbaric chamber supervisor. He is also an ACLS instructor, a Duke code team educator, and a member of the Duke Hospital code blue committee.Dawn Kernagis
Dawn is currently a graduate student at Duke University. Her Ph.D. thesis work, funded by the Office of Naval Research, is focused on identifying blood biomarkers of decompression stress in divers and investigating how genetics may influence individual susceptibility to decompression sickness. Dawn obtained her degree in Biochemistry at North Carolina State University, where she was a recipient of the Sigma Xi Undergraduate Research Award for her studies on behavioral endocrinology in coral reef fish.
Following her undergraduate studies, she became the first Operations Manager for the non-profit organization, Global Underwater Explorers. Before pursuing her Ph.D., she held an internship at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden where she coordinated and conducted a study investigating differential carbon dioxide retention in scuba, rebreather, and breath-hold divers. She then worked as a researcher at Duke’s Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology where she was involved with environmental physiology projects including Flying After Diving (DAN) and EVA Oxygen Prebreathe (NASA). Certified to dive in 1993, she has worked with a number of underwater exploration and conservation projects involving deep wreck and cave diving in Sweden, Mexico, Portugal, and France. She also played an active role as a diver and surface manager with the deep underwater cave exploration team, the Woodville Karst Plain Project, from 1996-2007. Over the years, she has lectured and published articles on topics ranging from underwater exploration to diving physiology, and has edited several textbooks on recreational, cave, and technical diving.Martha Sue Carraway Associate Consulting Professor in the Department of Medicine
Dr. Carraway’s research interest is in oxidative stress and nitric oxide biology in the lungs and other organs. The work focuses on oxidative and nitrosative mechanisms of acute lung injury. Models of lung injury being studied include exposure to oxygen, nitric oxide, endotoxin and other inflammatory mediators. Individual components of the response to injury are being studied to better understand the whole injury and thereby develop mechanistic interventions. The laboratory of Claude Piantadosi has nationally recognized expertise in these areas and provides a supportive environment for this work.Enrico Camporesi Gerardo Bosco, MD Dipartimento di Neuroimaging, Divisione di Scienze Mediche di base ed applicate, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università G d’Annunzio Dipartimento di Anatomia e Fisiologia, Sezione di Fisiologia Umana, Facoltà di Medicina e chirurgia, Università di Padova